Bài giảng Digital Systems - Chapter 1: Introduction - Nguyễn Trần Hữu Nguyên

Numerical Representations
• Analog Representation
– A continuously variable, proportional indicator.
– Examples of analog representation:
• Sound through a microphone causes voltage
changes.
• Mercury thermometer varies over a range of
values with temperature.
• Digital Representation
– Varies in discrete (separate) steps.
– Examples of digital representation:
• Passing time is shown as a change in the display
on a digital clock at one minute interva 
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  1. dce dce 2018 2018 Who’s Nguyen? • Department of Computer Engineering • NPN Lab – Includes Lê Trọng Nhân, Võ Tấn Phương & me who teach core Computer Engineering courses: Term II. Digital Systems, Digital Systems Term IV. Computer Architecture, Term V. Digital Signal Processing, Data Communication and Networks, Microcontroller & Microprocessor, Term VI. Internet of Thing Application Development. • Research Reconfigurable Systems Nguyễn Trần Hữu Nguyên BK – Systems designed & implemented using TP.HCM D: Computer Engineering reconfigurable hardware such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) E: nthnguyen@hcmut.edu.vn – Primarily interested in how systems that implement Deep Neural Networks are realized 1 2 dce dce 2018 Administrative Issues 2018 Administrative Issues (cont.) • Class – Time and venue: • Grades Mondays: 7:00 - 10:50, 304H1 – 10% Lab (Minimum 3 out of 10) Mondays: 12:00 - 15:50, 301H1 Textbook: – 10% assignments • [1] Digital Systems - Digital Systems: Principles and Applications- Ronald J. Tocci, Neal S. Widmer, Gregory L. Moss – 10% homework + quizzes – 11th Edition, Prentice-Hall 2010 – 8th Edition”, Prentice-Hall 2001 – 20% midterm • [2] “Fundamentals of Digital Logic – 2nd edition” – Stephen Brown, Zvonko Vranesic, McGraw Hill 2008 • [3] “Digital Design -3rd Edition” –John F. Wakerly, Prentice-Hall – 50% final exam 2001 • [4] “Digital Logic Design Principles” – N. Balabanian, B. Carlson, John Wiley & Sons, Inc , 2004 3 4 3 4 1
  2. dce dce 2018 Overview of the course 2018 Course Outline – Part I Number presentation and codes • Number system and codes – Decimal, Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal Number Systems Boolean algebra and logic gates – Conversions Combinational circuits – Codes: Gray, Alphanumeric Codes – Parity Method for Error Detection Sequential circuits • Logic gates and Boolean Algebra Introduction to Verilog HDL – Boolean Constants and Variables – Truth Tables – Basic gates: OR AND NOT Operation – NOR Gates and NAND Gates – Boolean Theorems – DeMorgan’s, DeMorgan’s Theorems 9 10 9 10 dce dce 2018 Course Outline – Part II 2018 Course Outline – Part IIB • Combinational Logic Circuits • Introduction to Verilog HDL – Sum-of-Product Form – Digital circuits design using Verilog HDL structural – Simplifying Logic Circuits model. – Algebraic Simplification – Simulation with Verilog HDL – Designing Combinational Logic Circuits – Digital circuits design using Verilog HDL continuous – Karnaugh Map Method assignment. – Parity Generator and Checker – Digital circuits design using Verilog HDL behavioral model. – Enable/Disable Circuits – Basic Characteristics of Digital ICs – Troubleshooting Digital Systems 11 12 11 12 3
  3. dce dce 2018 Acknowledgement 2018 Introduction to Chapter 1 • Digital technology is widely used. Examples: • Most of the slides in this course come either – Computers from the current text ( Digital Systems - Digital – Manufacturing systems Systems: Principles and Applications- Ronald J. – Medical Science Tocci, Neal S. Widmer, Gregory L. Moss) – Transportation • The material provided by these authors is – Entertainment gratefully acknowledged – Telecommunications • I personally thank Dr. Tran Ngoc Thinh for these • Basic digital concepts and terminology are slides. introduced • html 17 18 17 18 dce dce 2018 Numerical Representations 2018 Digital and Analog Systems • Analog Representation • Digital system – A continuously variable, proportional indicator. – A combination of devices that manipulate – Examples of analog representation: values represented in digital form. • Sound through a microphone causes voltage changes. • Analog system • Mercury thermometer varies over a range of – A combination of devices that manipulate values with temperature. values represented in analog form 45 45 • Digital Representation 42 41 40 40 37 35 35 34 35 C 30 C 30 0 29 – Varies in discrete (separate) steps. 0 25 25 25 25 23 22 20 20 18 temperature temperature – Examples of digital representation: temperature 15 15 10 10 7 5 5 4 • Passing time is shown as a change in the display 1 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415 on a digital clock at one minute intervals. time samples 19 20 19 20 5
  4. dce dce 2018 Digital Number Systems 2018 1-3 Digital Number Systems • Number systems differ in the number of symbols • Example they use – Decimal – 10 symbols (base 10) – Hexadecimal – 16 symbols (base 16) – Octal – 8 symbols (base 8) – Binary – 2 symbols (base 2) • Generalized form of number system base b 1 0 -1 24.6(8) = 2 x 8 + 4 x 8 + 6 x 8 = 20.75(10) 25 26 25 26 dce dce 2018 Digital Number Systems 2018 Digital Number Systems • The Decimal (base 10) System – 10 symbols: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 , 7, 8, 9 – Most significant digit (MSD) and least significant digit (LSD) • Decimal Counting – Positional value may be stated as a digit multiplied by a power of 10 27 28 27 28 7
  5. dce dce 2018 Representing Binary Quantities 2018 Representing Binary Quantities Typical representation of the • The oscilloscope and logic analyzer are two states of a digital signal. used to produce timing diagrams. A higher range of voltages – Timing diagrams show voltage versus time. represent a valid 1 and • Used to show how digital signals change with time, a lower range of voltages or to compare two or more digital signals. represent a valid 0. HIGH and LOW are often used to describe the Horizontal scale states of a digital system - represents regular instead intervals, starting of “1” and “0” at time zero. 33 34 dce dce 2018 Digital Circuits/Logic Circuits 2018 Digital Circuits/Logic Circuits A digital circuit responds to an input’s binary • Digital circuits - produce and respond to level of 0 or 1—not to its actual voltage. predefined voltage ranges. • Logic circuits – used interchangeably with the term, digital circuits. • Digital integrated circuits (ICs) – provide logic operations in a small reliable package. 35 35 36 9
  6. dce dce 2018 Digital Computers 2018 Digital Computers • Major parts of a computer: • Computer – a system of hardware that – Input unit—Processes instructions and data performs arithmetic operations, into the memory. manipulates data (usually in binary form), – Memory unit—Stores data and instructions. and makes decisions. – Control unit—Interprets instructions and sends • Computers perform operations based on appropriate signals to other units as instructed. instructions in the form of a program at – Arithmetic/logic unit—arithmetic calculations high speed and with a high degree of and logical decisions are performed. accuracy. – Output unit—presents information from the memory to the operator or process. 41 41 42 dce dce 2018 Digital Computers 2018 Digital Computers • Types of computers – Microcomputer • Most common (desktop PCs, notebook computers) • Has become very powerful – Minicomputer (workstation) – Mainframe – Microcontroller • Designed for a specific application • Dedicated or embedded controllers • Used in appliances, manufacturing processes, auto ignition systems, ABS systems, and many other applications. The control and arithmetic/logic units are often treated as one and called the central processing unit (CPU). 44 43 44 11
  7. dce dce 2018 Decimal to Binary Conversion 2018 Decimal to Binary Conversion • Repeated division steps: – Divide the decimal number by 2 • Repeated division – This flowchart – Write the remainder after each division until a quotient of zero is obtained. describes the – The first remainder is the LSB and the last is the MSB process and can be used to convert from decimal to any other number system. 49 50 49 50 dce dce 2018 Hexadecimal Number System 2018 Hexadecimal Number System • Most digital systems deal with groups of bits in • Convert from hex to decimal by multiplying even powers of 2 such as 8, 16, 32, and 64 bits. each hex digit by its positional weight. • Hexadecimal uses groups of 4 bits. Example: 16316 • Base 16 – 16 possible symbols 2 1 0 – 0-9 and A-F 16316 1 (16 ) 6 (16 ) 3 (16 ) • Allows for convenient handling of long binary 1 256 6 16 3 1 strings. 35510 51 52 51 52 13
  8. dce dce 2018 Number Systems Conversion 2018 BCD • Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) is another way to present decimal numbers in binary form. • BCD is widely used and combines features of both decimal and binary systems. • Each digit is converted to a binary equivalent. 57 58 57 58 dce dce 2018 BCD 2018 BCD • BCD is not a number system. • To convert the number 87410 to BCD: • BCD is a decimal number with each digit 8 7 4 encoded to its binary equivalent. 1000 0111 0100 = 100001110100 • A BCD number is not the same as a BCD straight binary number. • Each decimal digit is represented using 4 bits. • The primary advantage of BCD is the relative ease of converting to and from • Each 4-bit group can never be greater than 9. decimal. • Reverse the process to convert BCD to decimal. 59 60 59 60 15
  9. dce dce 2018 Alphanumeric Codes 2018 Parity Method for Error Detection • Represents characters and functions found on a • Binary data and codes are frequently moved computer keyboard. between locations. For example: • ASCII – American Standard Code for – Digitized voice over a microwave link. – Storage and retrieval of data from magnetic and Information Interchange. optical disks. – Seven bit code: 27 = 128 possible code groups – Communication between computer systems over – Examples of use are: to transfer information between telephone lines using a modem. computers, between computers and printers, and for • Electrical noise can cause errors during internal storage. transmission. • Many digital systems employ methods for error detection (and sometimes correction). 65 66 65 66 dce dce 2018 Parity Method for Error Detection 2018 Parity Method for Error Detection • The parity method of error detection • Even parity method – the total number of requires the addition of an extra bit to a bits in a group including the parity bit must code group. add up to an even number. • This extra bit is called the parity bit. – The binary group 1 0 1 1 would require the addition of a parity bit 1 1 0 1 1 • The bit can be either a 0 or 1, depending on the number of 1s in the code group. • There are two methods, even and odd. 67 68 67 68 17